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Why Gabapentin is Now a Schedule 5 Controlled Substance in Two States

In January 2019, the state of Michigan classified gabapentin as a Schedule 5 controlled substance. Part of a larger plan to better manage the opioid epidemic in the state, gabapentin was identified by the Michigan Board of Pharmacy as potentially harmful when taken with highly addictive Schedule 1 drugs such as heroin and cocaine. But Michigan was not the first state to change gabapentin’s status from a non-addictive drug to a mildly addictive one. Kentucky was the first to classify gabapentin as a scheduled controlled substance.

The fifth most prescriped pain drug in the US

The 2017 Kentucky decision was partly based on interviews of 33 gabapentin users in rural Appalachia who admitted to using it recreationally to get high. The Centers for Disease Control had been recommending using it for pain relief in place of the more highly addictive opioids. The FDA approved Neurontin for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia (shingles) and seizures. Pfizer, Inc, the drug company that made Neurontin—the brand name for gabapentin—touted its off-label use as a treatment for chronic pain caused by neuropathy, fibromyalgia, and migraines. By 2016, its liberal off-label applications and perceived safety culminated in a 49% rise in gabapentin prescriptions from just five years earlier. “In May 2018, it was the fifth most prescribed pain drug in the US… [Also in 2016,] gabapentin showed up in as many as one-third of the state’s fatal overdoses.” Its accessibility is due to two factors.

Cost and accessibility

One factor is that gabapentin prescriptions are easy to get and relatively inexpensive. Prescribers considered the drug safe and effective for multiple uses. Another factor is its street accessibility. Ohio police have reported that the street price of a 300 mg pill can be as low as 75 cents.

In January 2019, FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, said that federal health officials are just starting to look at this potential problem. He further stated that gabapentin abuse is not widespread right now, and they will be tracking opioid abusers’ social media discussions about using gabapentinoids – a category that includes gabapentin and Lyrica – as enhancers for their opioid experience.

Street drugs cut with gabapentin

A 2017 Pharmacy Times article reported that street drugs such as heroin are being cut with gabapentin, and that a study of 323 pain clinic patients’ urine tests revealed that 70 contained gabapentin that was not obtained by prescription.

Gabapentin has not yet been reclassified as a controlled substance on the federal level by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Lyrica, a drug similar to gabapentin, is also FDA-approved to treat epileptic seizures and shingles pain. It is currently classified as a Schedule 5 controlled substance, meaning it has a low potential for addiction and abuse.

Impact on MS patients

If or when gabapentin’s federal classification changes, how will that impact MS patients who have been taking it for neuropathic pain?

I am a Michigan resident. My first refill of gabapentin in January 2019 involved a call from the pharmacy alerting me to the status change and their contact with my prescribing doctor. They told me that I might be asked to show a picture ID with each refill in the future, and that will probably be the extent of the impact on the patient until further notice.

The divide between patients and non-users

But it does raise questions for MS patients who have been taking gabapentin for years, patients who are not addicted and are helped by it. Early reaction to this legislation shows a big divide between non-addict patients and non-users (including pharmacists and other health professionals), a number of whom might have jumped on the political bandwagon to wipe out opioid use both good and bad, as well as medications such as gabapentin picked up in toxicology reports of those who have died from opioid overdose. Many people suffering from chronic pain can only find relief with opioids and gabapentinoids. NSAIDs (naproxen, Aleve, ibuprofen, Motrin, Advil) and Tylenol (acetaminophen) are not effective substitutes. If you take gabapentin or are considering it, please contact your prescribing doctor to discuss your concerns.

Until recently, gabapentin was deemed safe and effective in doses as high as 3600 mg a day. But recent studies indicate that the body expels the drug at doses higher than 600 mg a day. Because of this, my own prescribing doctor has me on 100 mg pills with a cap of 600 mg per day.

It should be noted that ongoing studies of opioid and gabapentin use are invaluable in continuing to reassess risk, efficacy, uses, and abuses.

Editor’s note: An earlier version of this article incorrectly stated the number of urine tests that contained gabapentin that was not obtained by prescription. This has been corrected.

This article represents the opinions, thoughts, and experiences of the author; none of this content has been paid for by any advertiser. The MultipleSclerosis.net team does not recommend or endorse any products or treatments discussed herein. Learn more about how we maintain editorial integrity here.

  1. “Michigan Lists Pain Drug Gabapentin as Controlled Substance,” Associated Press, WXYZ-Detroit ABC, January 10, 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.wxyz.com/news/michigan-lists-pain-drug-gabapentin-as-controlled-substance
  2. “Should Gabapentin be a Controlled Substance?” by Pat Anson, Pain News Network, February 23, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.painnewsnetwork.org/stories/2018/2/23/should-gabapentin-be-a-controlled-substance
  3. “Gabapentin use, abuse, and the US opioid epidemic: the case for reclassification as a controlled substance and the need for pharmacovigilance,” by Alyssa M Peckham, Maria J Ananickal, and David A Sclar, US National Library of Medicine, NIH. Journal List:  Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2018; 11: 109–116, Published online 2018 Aug 17. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103607/
  4. “Should the Schedule Change on Gabapentin?” by Shelby Leheny, Pharm D, BS, Pharmacy Times, January 12, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/contributor/shelby-leheny-pharmd-candidate-2017/2017/01/should-the-schedule-change-on-gabapentin
  5. Gabapentin (Neurontin), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Diversion Control Division, Drug & Chemical Evaluation Section. October, 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/gabapentin.pdf

Comments

  • acg3
    4 months ago

    The study where 90 patients were found to have gabapentin in their urine samples was cited incorrectly. The Pharmacy Times article had 70 patients. Please correct this.

  • Kim Dolce moderator author
    4 months ago

    @acg3, thank you for catching that error. Correction is pending. Best, Kim

  • Linette778
    7 months ago

    I live in NY and they have not yet made it a controlled substance but it’s still affecting our scripts. Gabapentin scripts are not being filled at the pharmacy until 29 days in some cases not until you reach 30days. So even though we do not currently have the actual law its still affecting our state. I’ve been on gabapentin for 6 years and I am struggling with difficulty understanding a misuse potential I think lawmakers are jumping the gun on this and maybe need to educate themselves before making such decisions. Smh

  • wayong
    8 months ago

    I live in Massachusetts, which is one of the 2 states that decided to it was in our “best interest” to make an anti-seizure med a “controlled substance “.

    Thank you, Gov. Baker, for being ***so compassionate*** to those of who require Gabapentin a controlled substance.

    Yup, I’m looking forward to the day you decide to make my other anti-seizure meds & my asthma meds illegal.

    I’m sorry that Gov. Baker has family who have substance abuse disorders. However, we shouldn’t be punished for him (& other politicians) taking this personally or trying to gain brownie points from other associations that create draconian measures in regards to legitimate medications that were PRESCRIBED BY OUR DOCTORS for over 10 yrs.

    It is *dangerous* to stop any anti-seizure meds w/o consultation by your prescribing doctors & stop it suddenly.

    So, if we get into car accidents, fall down the stairs, have a nocturnal seizures or severe migraine, that’s ok? We will be a bigger burden to taxpayers if we don’t get the meds that help us function.

  • swampdoctor dave
    10 months ago

    Thank you Kim for the update. I currently take 1800 mg daily of this particularly effective drug. I believe that dried baby formula is also used to cut opioids. I wonder how many babies out there are abusing this seemingly effective substance?! I suppose if the babies mother/father were cutting the baby formula with an opioid then it might be a cause for concern…Back to you my hallway girl!

  • Linette778
    7 months ago

    They use all sorts of s**t to cut drugs. This was the drug of the week for the idiots to pick. It’s a lame poor a** excuse to try to make things more difficult for Americans to obtain their medication but bet your a** if these lawmakers were prescribed gabapentin it would be a different story. Maybe they should make it a law for people that haven’t already been prescribed it and not pertaining to people who have been on it for years for chronic pain. Unfortunately this happens all the time kinda like the marijuana laws . Other states follow suit cuz they are oxymorons and think it gives them gold trim. Listen to the people who idiots in charge instead of making decisions on something you truly have no damn clue on. Can’t wait to see what drug/alchol they try to ban people from next!

  • Billysabu
    3 months ago

    Awesome response. I live in Michigan. I’ve been taking gabapentin for 6 years for neuropathy and bone pain from ongoing Osteomyelitis, along with actual opioids. This new law is insane. Anyone who lives with chronic pain knows how hard things have gotten over the last few years. And now some genius in Kentucky interviews 33 Appalachian drug addicts and uses that as part of their basis for writing a new law that affect 10s of thousands? %^&*#$^&#$%&%!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    I feel horrible for the thousands of people who will present new chronic pain in the coming years. They may not ever get the help that is readily available. The government is telling us to just “Shut up and deal with it.”

    Time to go throw my foam bricks at something.

  • Kim Dolce moderator author
    10 months ago

    LOL Dave! I’ve missed your humor 🙂

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