Myelin Relies on Good Sleep for Best Function

Most of us with multiple sclerosis (MS) are constantly on the lookout for things we can do to be proactive about protecting our brain matter. Usually, these things include changes in diet and exercise as well as the use of supplements and practices like meditation and yoga.

One thing we might overlook, however, is the value of sleep to maintain brain health.

Myelin 101

To better understand how sleep can be a force for good in protecting our brain matter, we need to remember why myelin is so important to our brain health. One 2019 study focuses on the ways in which the body can tend to the process of myelination.1

Myelination, demyelination, remyelination

Remember, myelin is the waxy coating that insulates every nerve fiber in our body, including the billions stored inside the brain. These nerve fibers are described as “myelinated” in healthy people.2

Myelin exists as a kind of soft armor that allows for the sending and receiving of electrical signals to and from the brain. Any time the myelin coating is damaged, it increases the risk that signals will be slowed or disrupted entirely, depending upon the amount of damage.2

People with MS have lesions composed of damaged (or demyelinated) nerves in their central nervous systems (CNS), specifically the brain and spinal cord. Since the brain is tied to every single process and function inherent to the body – from thinking to breathing to digesting to sweating to healing – the problem of damage to myelin can be a major source of disability.2

Can the brain repair myelin?

The brain does have some means to remyelinate, or repair damaged myelin. However, in people with MS, this requires time and space for the repair to occur. MS often has other plans, bombarding the brain with attacks involving immune system cells that target the myelin.3

For those with relapsing-remitting forms of MS, periods of time and space between flares may allow for some repair (remyelination). But for those with progressive and highly active forms of MS, there may never be time or space for this to occur.3


One section in the 2019 study mentioned above – “The role of sleep and wakefulness in myelin plasticity”  – focuses on the nature of brain structure and function. Plasticity (or, in our case, neuroplasticity) describes the ease with which the brain can form and reorganize synaptic connections, especially in response to learning or experience or following injury.4

Synaptic plasticity

Synaptic plasticity is one part of neuroplasticity. It describes the biological process by which specific patterns of synaptic activity result in changes in synaptic strength and is thought to contribute to learning and memory.4

The synapses, in case you’ve forgotten, are the bridges between nerve cells that allow electrical signals to pass from one nerve to the next in an ideally smooth transit.4

Myelin plasticity

With this in mind, it’s important to note current research shows myelin plasticity is “an essential partner to synaptic plasticity.” According to the 2019 study, myelin plasticity “contributes to the optimization of neuronal circuitry, helps consolidate motor and cognitive function, and permits the acquisition of new skills.”1

In other words, the more flexible and adaptable our myelin is, the better it can serve our ability to think, move, and learn.

What’s sleep got to do with it?

The study researchers point to a close relationship between the process of sleep and myelin health. Large studies continue to show that our bodies can better maintain healthy brain tissue when given enough sleep. Sleep provides the body and brain key opportunities to heal damage (including remyelination) and maintain the structures necessary for optimal functioning across all cells and organs.1

Probably key to the research is the observation that, when we lose sleep, myelin itself may be compromised by:1

  • Structural thinning of the waxy coating
  • The loss of important energy stores inside the myelin
  • A failure to produce certain key proteins needed for myelin maintenance

Without enough sleep, we can expect to feel "cog fog," fatigue, heavy legs, speech problems, and other MS symptoms.

Prioritize sleep, as well as diet and exercise

Diet and exercise are 2 of the 3 key pillars to good health, with sleep being the (often under-appreciated) third pillar. Making sleep a priority is hard. But like diet and exercise, it's worth the effort. Here are some ways I've found to improve your quality and quantity of sleep so you can give your brain the fighting chance it needs:

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This article represents the opinions, thoughts, and experiences of the author; none of this content has been paid for by any advertiser. The team does not recommend or endorse any products or treatments discussed herein. Learn more about how we maintain editorial integrity here.

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